I like that question reader Zsa Zsa, if indeed that is your real name! It’s popularly said that the Islamic occupation of the Iberian peninsula lasted for 800 years. That’s technically true, though Muslims didn’t hold the entire peninsula for all of that time. The invasion commenced in 711 A.D. when the first Arabs crossed over from North Africa. By 720 virtually the entire peninsula was occupied. A capitol city was set up in the southern city of Córdoba, which in relatively short order became one of the dominant economic and culture centers in all of Europe and the Middle East. This “golden age” only lasted for a couple of hundred years or so, however, as infighting soon divided up the Caliphate into some 20 separate states, which fought with outside powers and one another until they were ripe for attack by Christian peoples pressing in from the north.
Truth be told, this re-conquering (“Reconquista” as it’s known in Spain) of Al-Andalus started almost immediately after the Arabs took the place, but really began to pick up steam starting in about 1100 A.D.. That’s when the Muslim-dominated areas of the peninsula began to contract in a serious way, until by 1249 the only remaining region under Muslim control was a small state all the way south near Gibraltar called the Emirate of Granada. Though I should point out that technically the Emirate only survived because it was a convenient way for the new reigning powers up in Castile to extract gold from what was left of the old Caliphate.
By the time Ferdinand and Isabella — of Christopher Columbus fame — came along, Granada was on its last legs, so to speak. And indeed they crushed it militarily the same year the Americas were discovered, in 1492. So you see Zsa Zsa, that’s not really an easy question to answer, but I hope I’ve put up a valiant effort!