Category Archives: Pastry Components

Hard Boiling Eggs

A lot of requests for a tutorial on this. It makes sense given that most hard boiled eggs end up sticking to the insides of their shells, and/or with that blue/green film around the yolks which signifies over-cooking. The first problem is best solved by time. Sticky shells result when you boil very fresh eggs. Easy-peel eggs can be had by either aging the eggs in the fridge for 10 days or longer, or letting the eggs sit at room temperature for about 24 hours. The aging loosens the membrane that surrounds the white from the inside of the shell, and that does the trick. Note that before you hard boil your eggs they should be chilled again, at least for this method, which assumes cold eggs.

So then, how to hard boil eggs in such a way that you don’t overcook them? Why just like this. Begin by placing your cold eggs in a pot and covering them with cold tap water, about an inch over the tops of the eggs is fine. More won’t hurt anything. Place the pot on the stove over medium-high heat. A little vinegar will help congeal any egg white that leaks out through a crack. A few tablespoons of salt is said to loosen those membranes I mentioned, but I’ve only had so-so results from that method.

Note: always boil one more egg than you need so you can check for doneness. And enjoy a light snack, maybe with a short beer and a dab of mustard. Nice.

While the eggs are heating, prepare an ice water bath (this will stop the cooking when the eggs have reached perfect doneness.

When the eggs reach the boil — but not a rolling boil — take them off the heat. Steam is terrible for photography. Sigh.

Let the eggs sit in the hot water for 10 minutes. At that point find your test egg, preferably the one with the crack in it. Lower it briefly into the ice bath, peel it and slice it in half. Perfecto.

If your eggs still look a little creamy in the center, let the boiling go on for another two minutes. That should do the trick. At that point, gently immerse the cooked eggs into your ice water bath. Allow them to cool completely, 20-30 minutes.

Remove the eggs from the bath and carefully place them on a rack to dry. Let them air dry for an hour or more. Carefully stack them in a bowl until they’re ready to be used. That’s it!

Filed under:  Hard Boiled Eggs, Pastry | 15 Comments

Sfogliatelle Filling

This filling is mostly used for sfogliatelle riccia, but works nicely as a bake-in filling in other applications. It’s a touch on the fussy side, but the results are worth it. You’ll need:

2 cups whole milk
pinch salt
5 ounces (generous 3/4 cup) semolina
7 ounces (1 cup) ricotta cheese
4 ounces (generous 1/2 cup) sugar
2 egg yolks
3 ounces (about 1/2 cup) candied citrus peels or candied cherries, finely chopped
2 teaspoons vanilla extract
1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon

Pour the milk into a medium saucepan and add the salt.

Bring the mixture to the boil. Sprinkle in the semolina, whisking gently all the while to keep lumps from forming. Cook the mixture for 2-3 minutes until it thickens to a paste-like consistency.

About like so. Remove it from the heat, pour it into a bowl and allow it to cool.

Meanwhile, press the ricotta through a fine mesh strainer, again, to eliminate lumps.

Like this. Huh. Looks pretty much the same. Oh well.

Combine all the ingredients in a bowl…

…and stir them together.

Cover the filling with plastic wrap and put it in the refrigerator until you’re ready to use it. It will store up to two days.

Filed under:  Pastry, Sfogliatelle Filling | 6 Comments

Making Chocolate Génoise

This is a classic génoise save for the fact that 25% of its flour volume has been replaced by cocoa powder. Otherwise it’s pretty much the same. Start by preheating your oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit and sifting together your dry ingredients: the cake flour, cocoa and salt.

That done, turn to the wet stuff. Combine the sugar (here a “wet” ingredient), egg and vanilla in the bowl of your stand mixer.

Whisk them all together a bit…

…then place the bowl over a large saucepan that’s got about an inch of boiling water in it. But, you know, that’s actually on the stove.

And whisk. The idea here is to warm the egg-and-sugar mixture just to the point that it feels like a warm bath. This will help the eggs to whip up high and with small, even bubbles.

You don’t want this hot. If you don’t have a thermometer, dip in your finger and test it. It should feel like a nice warm bath. Ahhh. At least 110 but no more than 120 degrees Fahrenheit, in other words.

Now whip. On medium-high for about eight minutes. At that point start checking your foam. You want it so a medium ribbon falls and the blobs the ribbon leaves most remain on top.

Plop…and it should pretty much stay there.

Alright then. Pour off about 1 cup of the foam into a small bowl or ramekin that has your cooled, melted butter in it. You can’t see it but it’s there, trust me.

Stir that all together with no particular delicacy, scooping up from under to make sure the butter is all incorporated. This will lighten the butter and help it incorporate into the batter.

Pour it in.

Now gently sprinkle on your flour mixture…

…and either fold or gently whisk it in. Here I’m doing the whisking method, you want to gently rotate the whisk around the outside of the bowl. Don’t beat it with any strength or you’ll overly deflate the batter. As it is you’ll lose a little of your volume, but that’s expected.

Scrape it into your prepared pan or onto a parchment-lined baking sheet if you want to bake it in that form.

Bake it 30-40 minutes until it’s firm in the center. Remove it to a rack to cool for 5-10 minutes, then gently remove the springform sides and peel off the parchment.

As it cools it may fall a little in the center in the first few minutes out of the oven. This is normal for spongecakes, don’t worry. If it goes a little concave you can always trim the outer edges off to even it out. The thing you don’t want of course is a total collapse. Anyway, place a piece of parchment in the top.

Flip the cake over and remove the pan bottom and parchment.

Then flip it back. Allow it to cool completely. This will store a day at room temperature or freeze for up to two months.

Filed under:  Classic Chocolate Génoise, Pastry | 14 Comments

Chocolate Génoise Recipe

OK, I decided.

Chocolate génoise is the foundation upon which a great Black Forest cake is built, and is good for a number of other things besides. Like a classic génoise it’s rather dry, but then it’s whole reason for being is to be soaked liberally with syrup.

2 ounces (4 tablespoons) unsalted butter
3.5 ounces (3/4 cup) cake flour
0.75 ounces (1/4 cup) Dutch-process cocoa
1/2 teaspoon salt
6 eggs, room temperature
5.25 ounces (3/4 cup) sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla extract

Preheat your oven to 375°. Melt the butter in a small saucepan and allow it to cool. Meanwhile, line a 9-inch springform pan with parchment paper. Next, sift together the flour, cocoa powder and salt into a large bowl.

Whisk the eggs, sugar and vanilla together in the bowl of a stand mixer (you’re not actually using the mixer here ) then set the bowl over a pan of gently simmering water. Heat the mixture until it’s just warm, about 115 degrees Fahrenheit. When he egg mixture is warm, place it in the mixer, attach the whip, and whip it on medium-high until it is tripled in volume, about 6-8 minutes.

Turn off the mixer, pour off about 1 cup of the mixture into the melted butter and stir it together. This lightens the butter so it will incorporate a bit more easily in the last step. Pour the mixture back into the mixer bowl, sprinkle on the sifted flour mixture, and using your largest spatula, fold the whole mixture together.

Gently scrape the mixture into the prepared pan and back 35-40 minutes until the cake is just firm. Transfer it to a rack and let it cool for about 5 minutes, then turn it out onto a rack to cool, upside down.

Filed under:  Classic Chocolate Génoise, Pastry | 10 Comments

Making Caramelized White Chocolate

This stuff is really delicious. I confess that I generally don’t go out of my way to eat white chocolate, but keeping my spoon out of this as I was baking it was a serious challenge. It is, as you’d expect, very caramelly in flavor which leads me to conclude that low temperature caramelization is indeed going on here. I highly recommend that you undertake the experiment. All you need is about a pound of white chocolate, a sheet pan and an oven set to 260 degrees Fahrenheit.

Why 260? Because 250 takes a lot longer if you can believe it. You have to be a bit careful since the smoke point of cocoa butter is just over 270. If your oven runs hot you can ruin your batch, so an oven thermometer might be in order. Start by chopping up your chocolate and laying it out on a sheet pan. These have been in the oven for ten minutes already and while they may look semi-solid still…

…they aren’t.

The idea is to slowly bake the chocolate over about an hour, but you need to move the chocolate around every ten minutes or so to ensure it’s all heated evenly and that none of it scorches. So every ten minutes or so scrape up the chocolate…

…up into a clump like this…

…and spread it out again.

Over about 45-90 minutes you’ll notice it getting darker…

…and darker…

…and darker…

…and darker.

You can take it darker than this if you want. This is where I stopped because I had a guy coming over to look at our leaking gutters. The fellow ended up tasting this as he wrote up his estimate at the kitchen counter. He was a big guy with lots of tattoos and attitude, but he wasn’t too proud to ask for a second spoonful after he finished the first one. That’s how good this stuff is.

It firms up more as it approaches room temperature, but heck, this was a nice photo. An hour after this was taken it firmed up to be fondant-like. Don’t worry if your chocolate seems to pass in and out of different clumpy/greasy/firm/liquid phases as bakes. I noticed no real rhyme or reason to what the chocolate did, though it did seem to steadily smooth out as it baked. Still, I had at least a few lumps even after more than an hour of baking. Very odd, though the lumps did caramelize all the way through. Once it firmed of course, the texture inconsistencies weren’t noticeable.

Now the question is — other than eating it by the spoonful — what to do with it. Caramelized chocolate…mousse? Sauce? Buttercream? The possibilities are almost endless.

Filed under:  Caramelized White Chocolate, Pastry | 47 Comments

Making Toffee/Butterscotch Sauce

I use the slash because, while there is a clear difference between toffee and butterscotch candies there is little if any difference between toffee and butterscotch sauce. Butterscotch is generally a bit lighter in color I suppose. To produce that effect all you need to do is use light brown sugar instead of dark brown. Otherwise the procedure is the same. You’ll need:

7 ounces (scant cup) dark brown sugar
2 ounces (4 tablespoons) butter
pinch salt
3 ounces (generous 1/3 cup) heavy cream

Combine all the ingredients in a small saucepan and bring it to a simmer.

Simmer it gently until the sugar is completely dissolved. Allow the to cool and thicken somewhat before using. It will also hold almost indefinitely and can be refrigerated for several weeks. For a smoother sauce that will flow better at lower temperatures, double the cream (at least).

Filed under:  Pastry, Toffee/Butterscotch Sauce | Leave a comment

Making Swiss Meringue

Swiss meringue is a thick, marshmallow-like confection that can be baked in shapes, used as a base for buttercream, it even makes a handy dessert topping. It holds well, pipes beautifully and since it’s pre-heated before it’s even whipped, carries little (if any) risk of food borne illness. Did I mention it’s really, really easy to make too?

One of the basic rules of meringues is that the earlier you add the sugar the denser and more stable the meringue will be. With Swiss meringue the sugar is combined with the egg whites in the very first step, so you can draw your own conclusions. A basic recipe is:

4 egg whites
7 ounces (1 cup) sugar
1/4 teaspoon cream of tartar

Set a medium saucepan with 1 inch of water on the boil. Meanwhile, place your whites, sugar and cream of tartar in the bowl of your mixer.

Whisk all that together, then put the mixer bowl into/on the saucepan, making a sort of improvised double boiler (make sure it’s stable, K?).

Now all you’re going to do is whisk all that gently until it reaches 160 degrees Fahrenheit. That’s not especially hot and it won’t take long. I personally like to whisk gently with one hand while I hold a instant-read thermometer in the mixture with the other. But don’t do this if, you know, you think you might tip everything on top of yourself. Even the best meringue isn’t worth a scalded crotch, knowadimean?

What’s so special about 160 degrees Fahrenheit? It’s the temperature at which salmonella (and many other kinds of bacteria) are killed. Some of you who’ve been reading the blog for a while may remember that egg white proteins start to curdle at 140 degrees Fahrenheit, and might be wondering what’s keeping them from cooking here. The answer is it’s the sugar, which is not only absorbing heat, it’s getting between the proteins and helping to keep them from clumping.

Once the magic number is reached, just put the bowl on the mixer, attach the whip and whip the whole thing up to stiff peaks. It’ll take a little longer than other meringues, and again that’s because of all the sugar. Bubbles are slow to form in this sweet mixture and when they do are very small, so be patient. It’ll take a good 5-8 minutes of whipping on high. Done!

Filed under:  Pastry, Swiss Meringue | 13 Comments

Making a Crumb Crust

For those who fear a traditional short-crust pie crust — or who just plain ‘ol love cookies — a crumb crust is a very easy, low-stress way to go. All you need are some crumbs, a little butter and a pinch of salt and you’re on your way. Here I’m doing a graham cracker crust. I put my crackers, the sugar and cinnamon in the bowl of a food processor…

…and run it for about 15 seconds until I have, well…crumbs. I don’t want to take this down to a powder, mind you. A few larger bits are OK.

Next I transfer the crumbs to a mixing bowl add my butter.

Give it a stir…

…then get in there with my hands and start rubbing.

You want the mixture to form a “log” easily when you squeeze it, one that should hold its shape for five seconds or so when you open your hand. If you don’t have that sort of cohesion, add another tablespoon of butter.

What? Do you know how much butter is in a standard pie crust? A lot. Anyway this step is critical to achieving a crust that will actually stand up on a plate.

Pour the mixture into a pie plate.

Apply a little plastic and start pressing — in the middle at first then outward toward the edges.

The up the sides. Gently press together any obvious cracks.

And there you go. Ready for baking. You can keep this for up to several days lightly covered with plastic wrap in the fridge.

Filed under:  Crumb Crust, Pastry | 4 Comments

Crumb Pie Crust Recipe(s)

Crumb crusts are great for citrus curd pies: key lime, lemon meringue, orange cream, that sort of thing. Graham cracker crusts are probably the most popular crumb crust, but you can also make terrific pie crusts out of vanilla wafers, gingersnaps and other kinds of simple cookies.

For a Graham Cracker Crust

5 ounces (1 1/4 cups) graham cracker crumbs
1 ounce (2 tablespoons) sugar
pinch cinnamon
2.5 ounces (5 tablespoons) butter, melted

For a Gingersnap of Vanilla Wafer Crust

6 ounces (1 1/2 cups) cookie crumbs
pinch salt
2 ounces (4 tablespoons) butter, melted


Combine the dry ingredients in a medium bowl. Pour in the melted butter and rub it into the mixture. The crust mixture should hold together when you squeeze it in your hand. If not, add a little more melted butter.

Press the mixture into a 9″ pie pan. It helps to place a piece of plastic wrap over the mixture to keep it from sticking to your fingers. If you have a tin pie plate in addition to a regular pan, that’s useful for pressing the crust. Place it on top of the plastic wrap-topped mixture and press it down starting the center then outward toward the edges. Gently remove the tin and the plastic wrap.

Filed under:  Crumb Crust, Pastry | 11 Comments

Making Egg Wash

Since the simplest things can often cause great confusion it seems well worth doing a proper tutorial on the subject of egg wash. I should say straight out that while I am aware of all the possible additions to an egg wash, I’m not a big believer in the benefits of that alchemy. Unless you’re very much into the minute details of presentation — and I’m clearly not — a simple wash made of well-beaten whole egg plus a dash of salt will do you for most any job. Multi-ingredient washes made from egg, cream, water with a dash of sugar…homey don’t play dat. Here’s what I do: crack an egg.

Give it a swizzle.

Mix in a couple sprinklings of salt.

What will this do aside from seasoning it? Good question. It will cause the mixture of liquid yolk and semi-gelatinous white to relax into an even, water-like solution. How? Well you’ll recall what I’ve written before about egg white proteins. In their natural state they occur in little bunches scattered throughout the white. Well I suppose I shouldn’t say “scattered” exactly, since the fresher the egg white is the more those little bunches are attracted to each other. They end up clustered together and it’s this clustering that makes a very fresh egg white thick and even a little milky in color as all those clustered protein bunches bounce light rays back to our eyes.

Add salt and that situation changes. The protein bunches aren’t nearly so attracted and in fact start to repel each other a little. Something like this happens as an egg gets older and the pH of the white naturally starts to rise. The little protein bunches spread out, making the white both thinner and clearer. But I digress. After about ten minutes I return to my egg wash which has thinned considerably as the protein bunches pushed away from each other. It has also darkened considerably. Don’t ask me why, I don’t know. What am I, some sort of encyclopedia or something?

Perfecto. Smooth and even, ready for painting on without glops.

I should add that you don’t want to fall into the trap of thinking that if a little bit of salt in the wash is good, a lot must be even better. Don’t go adding half a teaspoon or something crazy like that since too much salinity has the reverse effect on the proteins, causing them coagulate. You don’t want that since it means curds and blobs of egg all over your buns. Or Danishes…whatever you happen to be doing. All clear?

Filed under:  Egg Wash, Pastry | 12 Comments